WORKLIST ENTRIES (1):

LACTALBUMIN View alignment View Structure     Lactalbumin signature
 Type of fingerprint: COMPOUND with 5  elements
Links:
   PRINTS; PR00135 LYZLACT; PR00137 LYSOZYME
   INTERPRO; IPR000545
   PDB; 1ALC 3Dinfo
   SCOP; 1ALC
   CATH; 1ALC

 Creation date 05-JUL-1993; UPDATE 10-JUN-1999

   1. STUART, D.I., ACHARYA, K.R., WALKER, N.P.C., SMITH, S.G., LEWIS, M.
   AND PHILLIPS, D.C.
   Alpha-lactalbumin possesses a novel calcium binding loop.
   NATURE 324 84-87 (1986).

   2. ACHARYA, K.R., REN, J.S., STUART, D.I., PHILLIPS, D.C. AND FENNA, R.E.
   Crystal structure of human alpha-lactalbumin at 1.7 Angstroms resolution.
   J.MOL.BIOL. 221(2) 571-581 (1991).

   3. LAIRD, J.E., JACK, L., HALL, L., BOULTON, A.P., PARKER, D. AND  
   CRAIG, R.K.
   Structure and expression of the guinea pig alpha-lactalbumin gene.
   BIOCHEM.J. 254(1) 85-94 (1988).

   4. SHEWALE, J.G., SUDHIR, K.S. AND BREW, K.
   Evolution of alpha-lactalbumins.
   J.BIOL.CHEM. 259 4947-4956 (1984).

   5. NITTA, K., HIDEAKI, H., SHINTARO, S. AND SHIMAZAKI, K. 
   The calcium binding property of equine lysozyme. 
   FEBS LETT. 223 405-408 (1987). 

   Alpha-lactalbumin comprises 15 percent of the total human milk protein and
   is essential for lactose production [1]. It is a globular calcium-binding 
   metalloprotein secreted in the lactating mammary gland [2], the calcium
   being bound in a novel binding loop that is superficially similar to the 
   classic EF-hand motif. Lactalbumin attaches to beta-galactosyltransferase 
   on the luminal surface of the Golgi apparatus, creating the lactose 
   synthetase complex [1], which catalyses the addition of galactose to
   glucose, forming lactose. The lactalbumin gene also contains a novel
   upstream regulatory sequence called the 'milk box' [3], which is also found
   in genes of other milk proteins, and may be involved in either hormone
   regulation or tissue-specific expression in the lactating mammary gland.
   
   Alpha-lactalbumin is similar to C-type lysozyme in terms of primary 
   sequence and structure [4], and has probably evolved from a common 
   ancestral protein. There is, however, no similarity in function, lysozyme 
   being involved in the hydrolysis of bacterial cell wall polysaccharides, 
   lactalbumin playing an essential role in milk production. Another
   difference between the enzymes is that whereas all lactalbumins have the
   ability to bind calcium, this property is restricted to only a few
   lysozymes [5]. It was first suggested that calcium binding stabilised the 
   structure and protected it from heat denaturation, but recently it has 
   been claimed that calcium controls the release of lactalbumin from the 
   golgi membrane and that the pattern of ion binding may also affect the 
   catalytic properties of the lactose synthetase complex.
   
   LACTALBUMIN is a 5-element fingerprint that provides a signature for the 
   alpha-lactalbumins and distinguishes them from the lysozymes. The 
   fingerprint was derived from an initial alignment of 6 sequences: motif 4 
   encodes the calcium binding region, and motif 3 contains 2 of 8 cysteine 
   residues conserved in both lysozymes and lactalbumins (cf. PROSITE pattern
   LACTALBUMIN_LYSOZYME (PS00128)). Two iterations on OWL20.0 were required to
   reach convergence, at which point a true set comprising 17 sequences was
   identified. Five partial matches were also found, all of which are
   lysozymes, most matching motifs 1 and 3.
  
   An update on SPTR37_9f identified a true set of 17 sequences, and 1
   partial match.

  SUMMARY INFORMATION
     17 codes involving  5 elements
      0 codes involving  4 elements
      0 codes involving  3 elements
      1 codes involving  2 elements

   COMPOSITE FINGERPRINT INDEX
  
    5|  17   17   17   17   17  
    4|   0    0    0    0    0  
    3|   0    0    0    0    0  
    2|   0    1    1    0    0  
   --+--------------------------
     |   1    2    3    4    5  

True positives..
 LCAA_HORSE     LCA_EQUAS      LCA_HUMAN      LCA_PIG        
 LCAB_HORSE     LCA_BOVIN      LCA_CAPHI      LCA_SHEEP      
 LCA_PAPCY      LCA_CAMDR      LCA_CAVPO      LCA_RAT        
 LCA_MOUSE      LCA_RABIT      LCA_MACEU      LCA_MACRG      
 LCA_TRIVU      
Subfamily:  Codes involving 2 elements
 Subfamily True positives..
 LCA_ORNAN      


  PROTEIN TITLES
   LCAA_HORSE       ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN A (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - EQUUS CAB
   LCA_EQUAS        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - EQUUS ASINU
   LCA_HUMAN        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - H
   LCA_PIG          ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - S
   LCAB_HORSE       ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN B/C (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - EQUUS C
   LCA_BOVIN        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - B
   LCA_CAPHI        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - C
   LCA_SHEEP        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - O
   LCA_PAPCY        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - PAPIO CYNOC
   LCA_CAMDR        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - CAMELUS DRO
   LCA_CAVPO        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - C
   LCA_RAT          ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - R
   LCA_MOUSE        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - M
   LCA_RABIT        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - ORYCTOLAGUS
   LCA_MACEU        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - M
   LCA_MACRG        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - MACROPUS RU
   LCA_TRIVU        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN PRECURSOR (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - T
 
   LCA_ORNAN        ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN (LACTOSE SYNTHASE B PROTEIN) - ORNITHORHYN

SCAN HISTORY OWL20_0 2 100 NSINGLE OWL26_0 1 100 NSINGLE SPTR37_9f 2 20 NSINGLE INITIAL MOTIF SETS LACTALBUMIN1 Length of motif = 21 Motif number = 1 Lactalbumin motif I - 1 PCODE ST INT ELSQLLKDIDGYGGIALPELI LCA_HUMAN 26 26 EVFRELKDLKGYGGVSLPEWV LCA_BOVIN 26 26 ELSQVLKSMDGYKGVTLPEWI LCA_EQUAS 7 7 ELSQNLYDIDGYGRIALPELI LCA_PAPCY 7 7 EAFQKLKDLKDYGGVSLPEWV LCA_SHEEP 26 26 EVSHAIEDMDGYQGISLLEWT LCA_RAT 26 26 LACTALBUMIN2 Length of motif = 12 Motif number = 2 Lactalbumin motif II - 1 PCODE ST INT FHTSGYDTQAIV LCA_HUMAN 50 3 FHTSGYDTQAIV LCA_BOVIN 50 3 FHSSGYDTQTIV LCA_EQUAS 31 3 FHTSGYDTQAIV LCA_PAPCY 31 3 FHTSGYDTQAIV LCA_SHEEP 50 3 FHTSGYDSQAIV LCA_RAT 50 3 LACTALBUMIN3 Length of motif = 11 Motif number = 3 Lactalbumin motif III - 1 PCODE ST INT PQSRNICDISC LCA_HUMAN 86 24 PHSSNICNISC LCA_BOVIN 86 24 LPSRNICGISC LCA_EQUAS 67 24 PQSRNICDITC LCA_PAPCY 67 24 PHSRNICNISC LCA_SHEEP 86 24 PESENICDISC LCA_RAT 86 24 LACTALBUMIN4 Length of motif = 12 Motif number = 4 Lactalbumin motif IV - 1 PCODE ST INT DKFLDDDITDDI LCA_HUMAN 97 0 DKFLDDDLTDDI LCA_BOVIN 97 0 NKFLDDDLTDDV LCA_EQUAS 78 0 DKFLDDDITDDI LCA_PAPCY 78 0 DKFLDDDLTDDI LCA_SHEEP 97 0 DKFLDDELADDI LCA_RAT 97 0 LACTALBUMIN5 Length of motif = 10 Motif number = 5 Lactalbumin motif V - 1 PCODE ST INT KGIDYWLAHK LCA_HUMAN 118 9 VGINYWLAHK LCA_BOVIN 118 9 EGIDYWLAHK LCA_EQUAS 99 9 KGIDYWIAHK LCA_PAPCY 99 9 VGINYWLAHK LCA_SHEEP 118 9 KGIDYWKAHK LCA_RAT 118 9 FINAL MOTIF SETS LACTALBUMIN1 Length of motif = 21 Motif number = 1 Lactalbumin motif I - 2 PCODE ST INT ELSQVLKSMDGYKGVTLPEWI LCAA_HORSE 7 7 ELSQVLKSMDGYKGVTLPEWI LCA_EQUAS 7 7 ELSQLLKDIDGYGGIALPELI LCA_HUMAN 26 26 ELSQVLKDMDGYGDITLPEWI LCA_PIG 26 26 QLSQVLKSMDGYKGVTLPEWI LCAB_HORSE 7 7 EVFRELKDLKGYGGVSLPEWV LCA_BOVIN 26 26 EVFQKLKDLKDYGGVSLPEWV LCA_CAPHI 26 26 EAFQKLKDLKDYGGVSLPEWV LCA_SHEEP 26 26 ELSQNLYDIDGYGRIALPELI LCA_PAPCY 7 7 KLSDELKDMNGHGGITLAEWI LCA_CAMDR 7 7 ALSHELNDLAGYRDITLPEWL LCA_CAVPO 26 26 EVSHAIEDMDGYQGISLLEWT LCA_RAT 26 26 KVSHAIKDIDGYQGISLLEWA LCA_MOUSE 27 27 ELTEKLKELDGYRDISMSEWI LCA_RABIT 7 7 QASQILKEHGMDKVIPLPELV LCA_MACEU 26 26 QASQILKEHGMDKVIPLPELV LCA_MACRG 7 7 ELNQILRERGVDKVISLPELI LCA_TRIVU 26 26 LACTALBUMIN2 Length of motif = 12 Motif number = 2 Lactalbumin motif II - 2 PCODE ST INT FHSSGYDTQTIV LCAA_HORSE 31 3 FHSSGYDTQTIV LCA_EQUAS 31 3 FHTSGYDTQAIV LCA_HUMAN 50 3 FHISGYDTKTIV LCA_PIG 50 3 FHNSGYDTQTIV LCAB_HORSE 31 3 FHTSGYDTQAIV LCA_BOVIN 50 3 FHTSGYDTQAIV LCA_CAPHI 50 3 FHTSGYDTQAIV LCA_SHEEP 50 3 FHTSGYDTQAIV LCA_PAPCY 31 3 FHMSGYDTETVV LCA_CAMDR 31 3 FHISGYDTQAIV LCA_CAVPO 50 3 FHTSGYDSQAIV LCA_RAT 50 3 FHTSGYDTQAVV LCA_MOUSE 51 3 FHTSGLDTKITV LCA_RABIT 31 3 FHISGLSTQAEV LCA_MACEU 50 3 FHISGLSTQAEV LCA_MACRG 31 3 FHSSGFSTETEV LCA_TRIVU 50 3 LACTALBUMIN3 Length of motif = 12 Motif number = 3 Lactalbumin motif III - 2 PCODE ST INT DKFLDDDLTDDV LCAA_HORSE 78 35 NKFLDDDLTDDV LCA_EQUAS 78 35 DKFLDDDITDDI LCA_HUMAN 97 35 DKFLDDDLTDDM LCA_PIG 96 34 NKFLDDDLTDDV LCAB_HORSE 78 35 DKFLDDDLTDDI LCA_BOVIN 97 35 DKFLDDDLTDDI LCA_CAPHI 97 35 DKFLDDDLTDDI LCA_SHEEP 97 35 DKFLDDDITDDI LCA_PAPCY 78 35 DKFLDDDLTDDK LCA_CAMDR 78 35 DKLLDDDLTDDI LCA_CAVPO 97 35 DKFLDDELADDI LCA_RAT 97 35 DKLLDDELDDDI LCA_MOUSE 98 35 ENFLDDNLTDDV LCA_RABIT 78 35 SKFLDDDITDDI LCA_MACEU 97 35 SKFLDDDITDDI LCA_MACRG 78 35 SKLLDDDITDDI LCA_TRIVU 97 35 LACTALBUMIN4 Length of motif = 10 Motif number = 4 Lactalbumin motif IV - 2 PCODE ST INT EGIDYWLAHK LCAA_HORSE 99 9 EGIDYWLAHK LCA_EQUAS 99 9 KGIDYWLAHK LCA_HUMAN 118 9 EGIDYWLAHK LCA_PIG 117 9 EGIDYWLAHK LCAB_HORSE 99 9 VGINYWLAHK LCA_BOVIN 118 9 VGINYWLAHK LCA_CAPHI 118 9 VGINYWLAHK LCA_SHEEP 118 9 KGIDYWIAHK LCA_PAPCY 99 9 EGIDYWLAHK LCA_CAMDR 99 9 KGIDYWLAHK LCA_CAVPO 118 9 KGIDYWKAHK LCA_RAT 118 9 KGIDYWKAYK LCA_MOUSE 119 9 EGIDHWLAHK LCA_RABIT 99 9 EGLGYWKAHE LCA_MACEU 119 10 EGLGYWKAHE LCA_MACRG 100 10 ERLDHWKAHN LCA_TRIVU 119 10 LACTALBUMIN5 Length of motif = 9 Motif number = 5 Lactalbumin motif V - 2 PCODE ST INT CSEKLEQWL LCAA_HORSE 111 2 CSEKLEQWL LCA_EQUAS 111 2 CTEKLEQWL LCA_HUMAN 130 2 CSEKLDQWL LCA_PIG 129 2 CSEKLEQWL LCAB_HORSE 111 2 CSEKLDQWL LCA_BOVIN 130 2 CSEKLDQWL LCA_CAPHI 130 2 CSEKLDQWL LCA_SHEEP 130 2 CTEKLEQWL LCA_PAPCY 111 2 CSEKLEQWQ LCA_CAMDR 111 2 CSDKLEQWY LCA_CAVPO 130 2 CSEKLEQWR LCA_RAT 130 2 CSEKLEQWR LCA_MOUSE 131 2 CSENLEQWV LCA_RABIT 111 2 CIEDLDQWR LCA_MACEU 131 2 CLEDLDQWR LCA_MACRG 112 2 CRENLDQWN LCA_TRIVU 131 2

User query: Display/Full Code "LACTALBUMIN"